We are repeatedly asked about the universal perfect super bass, which transmits from 8 Hz. Therefore I have written the following article as a basis for discussion of low bass with high impulse fidelity. The frequencies are determined by simulation is calculated. On another page we describe how to design a high-end subwoofer.
The low bass characteristic of a loudspeaker depends on its properties
First, the physical limits, using the example of a closed woofer, i.e. one-sided radiating cone (in the example the data of 2 pieces Alcone AC12 SW-8 are preset).
For a low bass the woofer needs a big cone area and high excursion. You can try this out yourself by entering the following data: (The sound pressure is of course only reached if the loudspeaker is also capable of handling the electrical power).
according to R. H. Small there is another relationship between efficiency W, of lower cut-off frequency F3 (-3dB in Hz) and housing volume V (in L): efficiency W (in %) = 10-6 x Kn(G) x F3 x Vb Unfortunately, this formula results in quite high maximum efficiencies, which can rarely be achieved, so that we skip an evaluation.
Large cones do not move at all points in phase; the outer part is lagging behind. Therefore, several small ones are preferable. Due to their larger surface area, the lower notes emit the environment much more easily than expected. Unfortunately, this almost does not take into account any simulation program available to us.